Archive for the ‘Conditioning’ Tag

Clicks for Eye Contact   Leave a comment

One basic trick your dog can learn is not really a trick at all, but a behavior that can change your entire relationship with your dog.

That trick? Eye contact.

One of the most common complaints I hear is that a dog just doesn’t pay attention to his owners.

But why would he? Think about how much your dog ignores you (and other human voices and behaviors) every day, at your desire. He ignores you talking to your spouse, your kids, on the phone, to yourself. He ignores the TV and radio. He ignores the heating system, kitchen sink running, dishwasher, washer/dryer, shower. He ignores you walking around the house, preparing food, helping the kids with homework, doing housework. And we want him to ignore all these things, because if he were to pay attention and go on alert every time one occurred, we would never get a break from reassuring him all was well!

But then, in the tiny percentage of time that you want your dog’s attention, you expect him to know that, this time, this voice, this sound, this word, is directed at him. Maybe you call his name. But how many times do our dogs hear their names throughout the day? Maybe you talk to them as you get ready, but don’t expect a response. Maybe you’re telling a spouse about their antics. Maybe you’re explaining to a friend that you have to feed the dog. Or maybe you are saying his name to him, but it’s to tell him to stop doing something, or ignore something, or that he’s doing wrong. With all of those mixed messages, how can your dog know that this time, when you call his name, you want his attention?

Then take your dog outside, into a world of distractions, and you and your voice, which he has learned to ignore through long exposure, are the last thing on his mind.

To many, this seems like a helpless prospect. But it’s not.

One simple step you can take to improve your bond with your dog and help him stay attuned to you is to teach him that looking at you is rewarding.

Not when you call. Not when you get down to his level. Not when you jerk on the leash.

All the time. Any time. When nothing’s going on. When a squirrel runs by. When a new person approaches. When he’s out on a walk. Teach him that voluntarily checking in with you is a rewarding behavior!

This is really very simple. Carry your clicker (or have a vocal reward marker, like “Yes!,” to tell the dog when he does the right thing) and treats. And sometimes, start clicking for eye contact. Don’t make a sound. Don’t give a hint. Don’t try to pull his nose up to you with a treat. Just stand there (or sit there, or lie there), and wait. And when your dog looks your way, preferably when she makes eye contact, click and give a treat.

You can do this randomly throughout the day, but it helps to occaisionally have sessions of just rewarding a dog for eye contact, over and over. Many people notice that when they teach their dog to sit, their dog starts coming up to them and sitting all the time! The dog has learned that sitting is rewarding, and now will offer it on her own to see if it pays off. The same can happen with eye contact if you teach that it is a rewarding behavior by having sessions of clicking and treating it.

Start, like with any trick, in a non-distracting environment. Maybe your living room, where nothing that exciting goes on. Get your dog, go in the room, and wait. When she looks at you, click and treat. It’s that simple! As she gets better at it, and starts to stare at you, take a treat in your hand and hold it off to the side. Now your dog has to stop staring at the treat and look at you to get rewarded. It’s an easy-to-introduce distraction. Try changing other things. Turn sideways. Change position between sitting, standing, kneeling, or whatever else you can think of. Vary the distance between you and your dog. Once they’re a champ in your living room, try other locations. Remember, start easy. Go in your yard and practice before you head to the dog park and expect your dog to stare lovingly into your eyes!

As your dog gets the idea, you can stop the training sessions if you want, but keep randomly rewarding eye contact. This will give you a dog who is far more likely to check-in on his own, even when on a walk or at a park, because he knows that looking to you is rewarding. It also helps to strengthen the bond between you and your dog, because he has learned to stay aware of where you are and look to you for guidance. Obviously, there will always be times we want our dogs ignoring us. But if they learn to offer eye contact on their own, they learn that while they may ignore many of your actions and words, they shouldn’t ignore you.

Using a Muzzle   2 comments

Muzzles can be a necessity for any dog at some point in their life. As Katalin over at Special Paws Blog recently illustrated, even the most well-trained, lovable dog can run into a situation where a muzzle is needed! In her case, her dog had surgery, and she had been warned that the physical therapy can be painful, causing some dogs to snap or bite to let you know you’re hurting them. Because of this, the therapist requested that dogs wear muzzles while undergoing therapy. For a dog not used to wearing a muzzle, having one on can be a cause for a lot of anxiety, and would make the physical therapy scary when it didn’t need to be. The same is true for an injured dog who is terrified and in pain. If he is not used to it, putting a muzzle on him can amplify that fear a large amount. Training your dog to wear a muzzle, even if you see no immediate need, will help prevent stress in your dog if he ends up in a situation like these and needs to.

Then there are dogs who have bitten in the past in response to certain triggers. When working to counter condition your dog (teach her that the trigger is not stressful and thus no longer causes her to feel the need to bite) you may want her to wear a muzzle so that if you miss a warning sign she’s giving you no one is injured. This is especially important if you need to enlist the help of other people in counter-conditioning your dog. For example, if your dog will bite when her paws are handled, you will need to teach her to accept not only you handling her paws, but other people. While you may be willing to risk a bite, you don’t want to assume that your helpers will, as well.

In situations such as these, a muzzle can be a good tool. Read that again, because it is important. A muzzle is a tool. It is not a solution to a dog’s biting, it is a tool you can use while teaching her to not feel the need to bite, or that you can use in a short term situation when your dog is in pain and is likely to not have good control of herself. If you are working with a biting dog, it can help ensure everyone involved is safe. However, while this article is only about training your dog to accept a muzzle, recognize that it is only a useful tool either in short-term situations or when paired with appropriate training for the underlying biting behavior.

So you’ve decided that you want to teach your dog to accept a muzzle, either because you see an immediate need, or just for the possibility of needing it in the future. How do you ensure that your dog not only doesn’t find a muzzle stressful, but that he actually enjoys wearing it? I’ll go through the whole process, but be sure to break up your training in to 5 or 10 minute sessions, so the training stays fun and stress-free!

Introduce the muzzle to him slowly, and let him choose how quickly he will put it on. Get out the muzzle, and a bag of tasty treats. Now offer your dog a treat so that he has to stick his nose towards the muzzle to get it. Don’t go too quickly! How close your dog has to put his nose will be determined by his comfort level. Remember, the goal of this training is that your dog does not find the muzzle stressful. If you push him too quickly, even with food around, the muzzle will be associated with stress in his mind. Once your dog is eagerly looking to the muzzle, waiting for the next treat to appear, move the treat so it is a little further into the muzzle. Now your dog will have to put his nose either closer to or farther into the muzzle to get the treat (depending where you started). This may cause a little hesitation, but it shouldn’t cause him to balk. Ideally, your dog will be so happy with the game you’re playing that he won’t mind moving his nose an extra half-inch into the muzzle at all! If he balks or seems to get stressed, make the game easier. Put the treat back to where it was, or even further away, for a few repetitions, until he is having fun again. Slowly increase how far into the muzzle your dog has to put his nose to get the food.

If you move slowly enough, you should get to the point where your dog is happily jamming his nose all the way into the muzzle to get the offered treat. Once you hit this point, stop showing him the treat. Hold out the muzzle and see what he does. If he makes a move to put his nose in it at all, say “Yes!” in a happy tone, and offer him the treat inside the muzzle again. This way you are teaching him that you’re playing the same game, but that the muzzle itself is a cue to put his nose in and get rewarded, not the treat. This will allow you to muzzle him even if you don’t have any treats on you in an emergency. Repeat this game until you can offer the muzzle, and he will eagerly stick his nose all the way inside and wait for his treat.

At this point you can start to fasten the muzzle. Up until now you have simply been holding it out and letting him put his nose in, but if you were to let go it would either fall off or be easily pawed off. You are just going to add to the rules of the same game you have been playing all along that your dog loves. Offer the muzzle and let him eagerly stick his nose in, but don’t treat him yet. Instead reach out, grab the straps, fasten them, and give the treat. As soon as he takes the treat unfasten the strap and take off the muzzle. Once the muzzle is off ignore your dog for a few seconds, and repeat the procedure. Note: If you are using a cloth or mesh muzzle which holds your dog’s mouth closed, he may not be able to take a treat, or even lick some baby food off a spoon. If that is the case, put on the muzzle, and give him a different reward. Pet him, cuddle him, give praise, run with him (see the safety note below), do something that your dog loves that doesn’t involve opening his mouth. Once the muzzle is off ignore him for a few seconds, as above. This teaches your dog that having the muzzle fastened means that the good things are coming. Once it comes off life is not bad, but it’s a lot less exciting and fun! At first you may not be able to fasten the muzzle all the way. That’s fine. Remember: the goal is to keep your dog happy! If at any time his tail tucks or he acts upset, slow down and go back a few steps. This should be an enjoyable process! If he starts to get unhappy when you go to fasten the muzzle, start by just reaching out and touching the strap while his nose is in the muzzle and then rewarding him, slowly building up to fastening it. There is no step too small to take in your progress!

As your dog accepts the muzzle being fastened, leave it on for longer and longer periods of time. Keep the rule that while it is on, good things are happening, once it comes off, all the good things stop. No congratulating your dog for doing so well after you take it off! That will teach her that the muzzle coming off is desirable, and she will not like having it on. Instead, congratulate her while it is on. That’s the hard part, after all! Slowly build up the amount of time your dog will happily wear the muzzle, always taking it off before she gets stressed. Once she is happily wearing it for more time than you would need to work on desensitizing her to her trigger (having her paws handled in the above example) you can start counter-conditioning her trigger safely, with her muzzle on and adding no stress. If you’re training it for a rainy day, build up until she will happily wear it for at least 10 minutes. Remember to practice with the muzzle occasionally so your skills stay sharp, though once she likes it the rewards can go down in value and frequency.

Congratulations, you now have a dog who gets excited when he sees the muzzle come out, and can’t wait to get his nose into it! Whether you need it right now, or might in the future, you can add one more check to your list of mastered skills.

Safety Note
Never leave a dog unsupervised wearing a cloth or mesh muzzle which holds their mouth shut. Also never leave it on for longer than about 20 minutes, especially in warm weather. While wearing a cloth or mesh muzzle a dog cannot pant or drink, which can be dangerous for long periods of time, especially in warm weather. This is the main reason I typically prefer a basket muzzle of either wire or plastic, which completely encases your dog’s mouth but does not hold it shut. Another reason is that with a cloth or mesh muzzle while a dog cannot bite, he can pinch since there is typically some give in it. This can still be painful!

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Positive Reinforcement Works On People, Too!   Leave a comment

Often what we ask our dogs to do is hard, or uncomfortable, or requires some level sacrifice. Asking your dog to sit to greet people rather than jumping is a lot less fun than letting excitement take over, and a lot less natural than greeting them face to face! Asking your dog to leave that fascinating roadkill he found alone is asking him to give up one of the coolest discoveries in dogdom! Asking your dog to stop chasing that squirrel and return to your side is HARD and goes against all of his instincts!

One of the basic ideas behind positive training is that if you make appropriate behaviors rewarding, dogs will be more likely to (happily) do them, even if they require a higher level of effort than the alternative or are in other ways naturally less appealing.

Volkswagon has taken the same principle, and tried it out on people, calling it “The Fun Theory.” They take things that are not that hard to do, but that most people don’t find worth doing, and make them fun to see if that will encourage more people to do them. For example, they transformed a staircase, which is right next to an escalator, into a giant piano that sounds each time you put a foot on a step. Their results are no surprise to positive trainers – making a behavior more fun encourages people to do it! The day after they installed the giant piano on the steps, 66% more people took the stairs than normal.

Here’s another example where they took a glass collection station and turned it into a arcade game. Check out the results:

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Discarding Dominance and Leading with Love   6 comments

Everyone wants a well-trained dog, one they can walk down the street with to the envy of all around, who is calm and friendly in the house, and does all you ask of him in an instant. But as any dog owner can tell you, that’s not easy! How do we go about transforming our dog into that perfectly behaved pooch?

In our society today, it is considered common knowledge that any misbehavior by our dog comes from her trying to assert herself as “leader of the pack.” Our relationships with our dogs are looked at as power struggles. Any affection we show our dog or reward we give her is considered showing weakness, inviting her to take over. To maintain order, we are taught we must intimidate our dogs into submission, giving them painful corrections when they misbehave, and physically overpowering them until they comply with our wishes. This is the only way, we are told, that we can have a good relationship with man’s best friend.

In reality, this view of canine behavior is outdated and has been proven inaccurate. The theory comes from 1947 research which was done on unrelated wolves in captivity who were put together to form a pack and observed while hunting. With no supporting evidence, the research was then extrapolated to apply to free wolf packs, which are typically made up of a breeding pair and their offspring, to those wolf packs at all times, not just while hunting, and to domesticated dogs’ interactions with each other and with humans. We now know that the conclusion of this study is not applicable to the interactions of wild wolves, let along domesticated dogs who have been selectively bred for thousands of years. For more explanation of how this theory has been disproven, see the references at the end of this post.

This is good news for dog owners and lovers everywhere! Now we know that to have a happy and loving dog who is a joy to have in the family, we do not have to dominate or intimidate him. Rather, by using modern methods of conditioning, we can teach our dogs to follow the rules of our household. Using these methods not only do our dogs what we ask, they take joy in it!

Think of Pavlov’s dogs. Every time a bell rang, they salivated. This was an automatic and predictable response; the dogs heard the bell, and they eagerly anticipated food. Now imagine what Pavlov could have accomplished if he had asked his dogs to earn the sound of the bell. Say, for example, that every time a dog laid down, the bell was rang, and the food promised by the bell followed. You can imagine what would happen: pretty soon he’d barely be able to walk with all the dogs lying around his feet, hoping for the sound of that bell!

This is the principal on which clicker training works, but instead of a bell we use a “click.” By teaching the dog that the “click” means they get food, soon we have dogs who are excited and eager to figure out what we want them to do to earn the “click.” Once they have learned a cue, we stop using the “click,” but because that behavior has always been a fun thing they’ve wanted to do, they will continue to happily do it when asked. And wouldn’t you rather have a dog who gets excited when you ask him to do something rather than cringes?

Recently, Debbie of fearfuldogs.com wrote a post I absolutely love, illustrating the common perception among Americans that training your dog has to mean forcing him into submission. She points out that the good behavior she gets from dogs comes from teaching them the “culture of human,” rather than demeaning or punishing them until they figure it out. Her story is a great example of how powerful positive training can be, so that even those who don’t necessarily put stock in it recognize the results.

Modern research supports the power of positive training, as does the experience of trainers of all kinds of species, including chickens, cats, and dolphins (ever tried to give a dolphin a leash correction?). It is good for your dog, good for you, good for your family, good for your relationship, good for everyone! So give it a try, and discover how quickly and eagerly your dog can learn.

A Few Resources Debunking Wolf Pack/Dominance Theory

Position statement on dominance training by the American Veterinary  Society of Animal Behavior

Database of publications by recognized wolf expert L. David Mech

Specific article by L. David Mech through the United States Geological Survey (USGS) discussing the lack of a heirarchical system in wolf packs

Specific article by L. David Mech discussing modern science’s almost unilateral acceptance that “alpha wolves” do not exist

Article on dominance training by the Association of Pet Dog Trainers

Article on dominance theory by the head of the International Positive Dog Training Association

Discussion of 1947 wolf pack research compared to more recent dog pack research with conclusions

Interview with Ray and Lorna Coppinger, biologists, trainers, and authors

Article on the myth of dominance theory (no references but very accessible)

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Preparing Your Dog For Your New Baby   Leave a comment

Many people having children worry about how their dog will behave around their new baby. This is a fair concern – you don’t want any harm coming to your child! However, with some preparation, you can ensure that your dog will happily welcome your upcoming family member into the fold.

Before the Baby Arrives

The best way to help your dog acclimate to the newest member of the family is to do a lot of preparation before the baby comes. By getting your dog used to the changes in his life that are to come separate from the baby being there, he will not blame the baby for any changes he doesn’t like. Below are some steps you can take while you are still pregnant:

  • Play sounds of a baby crying, screaming, laughing, etc. so dog gets used sounds that will soon be a common part of life. While the sounds are playing give your dog a stuffed chew, a favorite bone, play with him, to make the sound a positive thing.
  • Be sure your dog has good knowledge of basic obedience cues such as sit, down, stay, and come. This will not only give you necessary control over your dog so she can safely be around your baby, it teaches her self-control so she can have the necessary control over herself!  Consider taking a group class with your dog, so she gets used to listening to you in a hectic environment.
  • Use a baby doll to play-act a lot of what will be going on in your household soon. This will make the shock of the baby coming home less, since your dog will be used to the new routine. Some things you can practice:
    • Walk around with the doll in your arms
    • Sit on the couch with the doll on your arms or in your lap
    • Change the doll’s diaper
    • Burp the doll
    • Sit in a rocking chair with the doll
  • You can also use a baby doll to set up new rules for your dog. For example, if your dog will be allowed on the couch in general, but not when the baby is on the couch with you, set up and teach your dog that rule with the doll before the baby comes. You’ll have the time and patience at this point to teach the new rules. Be sure to constantly reinforce them, so they are second nature by the time you substitute the baby for the doll.
  • Get your dog (and you!) used to having his nails clipped regularly, as you will probably want them short around your child.
  • Decide where your dog will sleep after the baby arrives. If it is different than where she is sleeping now, then make the transition before the baby comes.

  • Be sure to run any new equipment you will use after the baby comes early, so your dog gets a chance to investigate it while it’s appropriate. Allow him to investigate it, but not mouth or jump on it. Some things to run include an electric swing, a mobile, and a bouncy chair.
  • If your dog is currently the center of your world, spend some time not paying attention to your dog each day. Once the baby comes she won’t get your undivided attention, so get her used to it now.
  • If your dog is always or sometimes not going to be allowed in the baby’s room, get him used to that fact now. Spend some time in there with the door shut and him outside while you assemble furniture, put away clothes, or do other chores you need to to get ready. In this way he will become acclimated to action occurring in the baby’s room while he’s not allowed in.
  • Teach your dog good leash manners now. Consider using a head collar if your dog pulls. Once your dog has good loose-leash manners, take practice walks with your stroller.

The basic rule for preparing your dog for your baby is to think of every change that will occur in your dog’s life after the baby is home, and slowly acclimate her to it before the baby arrives. If you do this, the baby’s arrival will be less of a shock, since there will not be as many changes when the baby comes home, and your dog will not associate any changes she doesn’t like with the baby.

Introducing Your Baby to Your Dog

  • After the new baby is born, have the new dad take home an item that smells like your baby, such as a blanket he was wrapped in, and allow the dog to smell it. Dogs rely heavily on their sense of smell, so this will make the baby seem more familiar when she arrives. Allow the dog to smell the blanket, but not mouth it or play with it.
  • When the family comes home from the hospital, have the new mom come into the house first and alone. Your dog won’t have seen her for several days, and so will be quite excited at her return! Let him get that excitement out on mom without baby there to worry about.
  • When you are ready to introduce your dog to your baby, put your dog on a leash. Have everyone stay very calm, if you are worried it will make your dog worried. Bring in the baby and allow the dog to sniff and even lick him (don’t worry, your baby will be exposed to many more germs from visitors over the next few weeks than from your dog’s tongue). The dog should have know appropriate manners for someone holding a baby from your practice sessions with a doll, but if she exhibits any unacceptable behavior the person with the leash should simply take her a few steps away to calm down, and then bring her back to continue the greeting. Do not under any circumstances yell at or punish the dog during this first meeting. Your dog is making her first impression of the new baby, and you don’t want her to associate punishment with your child.
  • After your dog has had a chance to greet the new baby, have a new toy or chew ready for him. This will help make your baby more positive to your dog, and keep him occupied while you settle in at home.

After You are Settled

  • Be sure your dog still gets lots of exercise every day. The number one way to reduce or solve problem behaviors is to exercise your dog! It is almost impossible to walk a dog too much; ideally your dog should be starting to slow down by the time you get home.
  • Make a conscious effort to give your dog attention while your baby is in the room, so he does not learn that the baby’s presence always means he is ignored. If he draws this conclusion he will surely be resentful!

Dogs can be a wonderful part of any child’s life, and with some simple preparation you can ensure that your dog will spend a long, happy life helping your child grow up!

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Growling is Good!   6 comments

Let’s look at a typical scene:

A dog owner is walking her dog through the park. Another person walks by and suddenly, her well-behaved angel starts growling and baring his teeth at the person, with his hackles up and his body tense. The embarrassed owner scolds her dog and corrects him with a jerk on the leash, and apologizes to the other person. They continue, giving each other a wide berth, and finish their walks.

This type of thing has happened to most dog owners at least once, and usually, they have no idea why their dog is doing it. It is embarrassing, it makes a person feels like a bad owner, she’s afraid for the reputation her dog will get, and she just wants her dog to stop growling! The sentiment is common, and the desire to “correct” the dog until they stop is strong.

However, let’s consider the alternative:

A dog owner is walking her dog through the park. Another person approaches and her dog walks silently by her side. All of a sudden, as the other person is passing by, her dog lunges and latches his jaws onto the person’s arm. Shocked at the vicious attack with no warning, the owner apologizes profusely, and now may be stuck not only with doctors’ bills, but with having to surrender her “dangerous dog” to be euthanized.

As embarrassing as it can be to have your dog growl, it has a purpose. Your dog is telling you that he is uncomfortable. He is communicating in a positive, safe way that he feels something is wrong, and giving you as his leader the chance to protect him from it by getting him away. It is far better that your dog give you this warning than that he keep his fear inside until it gets so big it comes out as a bite.

When uncomfortable or scared, dogs have two main responses: fight or flight. If for any reason he feels that flight is unavailable to him; he is on a leash, he is in an enclosed space, running has not worked before; he will feel he has no choice but to resort to fight. Ninety-nine percent of the time, a dog is not growling because he is mean, he is growling because he is scared and he’s desperately hoping that if he tells whatever is scaring him to back off he won’t have to fight it off. However, if pushed, and if he feels he has no other choice, a dog will fight to get rid of something that is scaring him.

Why is it we are embarrassed when our dog growls? Because we know that when a dog growls it is often a precursor to a bite. That precursor, though, is very important! Without the opportunity to give warning, to let you and anyone else know that something is scaring him, to growl, the dog has no steps left before biting. And then the attack is a complete shock.

When dealing with a dog who growls, you do not want to teach your dog not to growl. You want to teach your dog to not feel like he needs to growl. If a dog feels like he needs to growl, but doesn’t due to training, all of the stress and feelings that lead up to a bite are still there, and the dog will still bite if pushed. This not only doesn’t help prevent dog bites, it makes them worse by giving you no warning they are coming. If, instead, you work with your dog and teach him to not feel the need to growl, by showing him that whatever he is scared of is not a threat and actually can be a source of good things, then the bite will not come.

So what should you do if your dog does growl?

Immediately turn around and walk away from whatever your dog is growling at, staying calm. Give him the space he needs to settle down, and then continue on. Once he is settled, the danger of imminent bite is gone. While you are leaving, see if you can take note of what your dog was growling at. You will want to know this for later training.

Do NOT punish your dog for growling, verbally or physically. If you do this your dog will learn one of two things: that he shouldn’t growl and should go straight to biting, as discussed earlier, or that whatever he is growling at is even more scary than he thought. The way a dog’s brain works, he does not necessarily connect what he is feeling with what he is doing. Rather, he often connects what he is feeling with what he is seeing or sensing. So if a dog is staring at something that scares him and you correct him for growling, rather than thinking, “I growled, and so I felt pain. I should stop growling,” (a bad lesson anyway), he is likely to think, “I saw that thing, and I felt pain. That thing must be even scarier than I thought.” If your dog takes away the lesson that what he was growling at causes him pain, he is going to be even more nervous about it, and even more likely to bite next time he sees it.

Now that you know what caused the growl, you know what your dog is afraid of, and you can work on teaching him he doesn’t need to feel afraid and growl. At this point you may want to contact a professional trainer to help you work with your dog. Even when based in fear, growling is a serious problem which can lead to serious aggression, and if not properly treated could lead to your dog being taken away and even put down. The sooner you start effectively working on it, the easier it will be to correct. If however, you feel that you can work with your dog yourself, below is one general method which can be applied to most cases of fear-based aggression.

Invest in a clicker, a small hand-held device which, when depressed, makes a clicking sound. They are available for a dollar or two at most pet stores. You use it by teaching your dog that whenever he hears the sound of the click it means a treat is coming. To do this, click and then feed your dog a treat several times. Once he learns that the click means “treat coming,” the sound of the click signals that he did something right at the instant the click happened.

Take your dog to be near whatever it is that scared him, but stay far enough away that he is comfortable. Wait for him to look at what scared him. As soon as he looks, click. Hopefully your dog will look back at you for a treat, and if he does, praise him and give it to him! If not, hold the treat in front of his nose to get his attention, and then give it to him. If he is unable to take the treat that is a sign of a high level of stress, so move farther away from the scary object. This lesson is three-fold. First, it teaches your dog that when he looks at that thing he thinks is scary, something good happens. It can’t be that scary if every time he sees it he gets a treat! Second, it teaches him to check back in with you every time he sees that scary thing. If your dog’s natural instinct is to look at you, he is not getting stressed or upset, he is looking to you to tell him it’s OK and trusting you to make sure it is so. Third, it builds up the number of times your dog sees the scary thing without losing control. If your dog is in the habit of snarling or growling every time he sees something, then it becomes an automatic reaction, even if in that particular instance it wouldn’t be scary on its own. Building up repetitions where your dog has a reaction other than his automatic fearful one helps the fearful reaction to stop being automatic. Practice this clicking for looks, and if your dog picks up on it you may start clicking for looking back at you after glancing at the thing he finds scary, rather than looking at the thing itself.

Once your dog gets the idea of the game, start moving closer to the scary object slowly. You want your dog to stay far enough away that at any stage he does not feel so intimidated he loses control or starts growling. If this happens just move back farther and try again. Depending on how long your dog has been scared of the trigger it may take a long time to get very close at all to it without a reaction, but that is OK. Remember that every physical step closer is a big mental step for your dog, and celebrate it as such!

If at any point you feel that this training is not working, or that you cannot handle your dog’s growling alone, contact a professional trainer immediately. A professional trainer who uses positive methods can help you refine your skills on working with your dog using this or many other tactics, depending on the specific situation, and the cost of a trainer will be far less than the doctor, vet, or lawyer bills you could be stuck with if the problem isn’t gotten under control.

Remember: Growling is good! No dog is more dangerous than one who does not give warning before a bite. Work with your dog using positive methods to eliminate the cause of growling, rather than the growling itself, to ensure the safety of your dog, yourself, and everyone around you.

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